Alankaars :

To make the raag rendering more beautiful and varied, different ornamental patterns are used.

Alankar : Alankar literally means ornaments or adorations. Specific melodic presentation in succession in which a pattern is followed is called Alankar. For example : "SaReGa, ReGaMa, GaMaPa, MaPaDha, PaDhaNiDaNiSa". This phrase is a part of an alankar in which three notes in succession are used at each time.

Gamak : These are many ways of ornamenting the notes. In the ancient books fifteen types of gamaks are found. Kampita - Shake.

    •  Andolita - Swing
    •  Aaghaat - Strike
    •  Valit - Vipple
    •  Tribhinna - Threefold
    •  Gumphita - Threaded
    •  Plavita - Flowing
    •  Mishrit - Mixed
    •  Kurula - Spiral
    •  Sphurita - Pulsating
    •  Tirip - Flurry
    •  Leen - Absorbing
    •  Mudrita - Imprint
    •  Ullhasit - Happy
    •  Naamita - Obeisance

Many of these gamaks are still in use in Karnatak music under different names. However, today in the North Indian music, vibrating the notes with force is now called Gamak. This is an important technique in Dhrupad and often in BadaKhayal singing.

Kan or SparshSwar : Kan means a small particle of neighboring note used with main note. It can be higher or lower than main note.

Murki : It's a short taan of three or four notes. It's sung very fast.

Khatkaa : Two or more notes sung with a jerk. It’s a combination of Kan and Murki.

Meend : Stretching or lengthening the sound from one note to another. This technique maintains the continuity of the sound. Meend                 brings a continuous flow, softness and continuity.

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